Comparison of the Bayer and Pedersen process .
|Parameter||Bayer Process||Pedersen Process|
|Overall process characteristic||Hydrometallurgical||Pyrometallurgical
|Ore type||High Al2O3:Fe2O3 ratio||Low Al2O3:Fe2O3 ratio|
|Main byproducts||Red mud (not consumable)||Pig iron (consumable)
Grey mud (consumable)
|Leaching conditions||Digestion by NaOH 150–250 °C
|Digestion by Na2CO3 40–80 °C
|Al(OH)3 precipitation||45–80 °C; 48–70 h||70–80 °C; 6–10 h|
|Electric energy consumption||Reference process||10% higher|
|Using ores rich in TiO2 and SiO2||Reference process||More flexible|
|Raw materials costs||Reference process||Higher (∼ 40% in average)|
|Process costs per unit mass of Alumina||Reference process||30–50% lower6|
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