Table 2

Energy demand of the hard carbon synthesis routes.

Process Energy consumption in kWh per ton of hard carbon   

  Waste tyres Apple pomace Phenolic resins
Scrubber 0.02 0.08
Bucket elevators 0.45 0.52
Screw conveyer/vacuum pump 0.90 1.48 5.34
Nitrogen compressor 1.06 1.82 1.16
Rinsing/water pumping 1.11 0.21 0.45
Drying 90.11
Side wall cutter 6.47
Gas compressor 8.83 29.67 20.29
Air compressor 123.57 140.39 113.72
Shredding/grinding 158.52 105.42
H2SO4 bath 211.14
Acid recovery 660.27
Pulverizer 1142.86
Pyrolysis 3290.38 4144.92 4239.36
Recovered thermal energy −2902.49 −4215.61 −3187.06
Recovered electrical energy −928.57 −318.51 −140.95
Total 1774.51 −19.5 1052.31

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