Table 1

Principle process parameters of the different HC synthesis processes.

Component Function Source Parameter   

      Waste tyres Apple pomace Phenolic resins
Hot air drying Feedstock drying [44,45] Residence time: 20 min.
Air flow: 28.27 m3/s
Pressure drop: 340 Pa
Side wall cutter Removing steel inside scrap tyres [28] Throughput: 2700 kg/hr
Power: 5.5 kW
Shredder Reducing particle size to 50 mm [33,34] 40° face angle    
20 rpm      
Screw extrusion (tyres)/grinding (pomace) Reducing particle size to
300 μm (tyres)/50 μm (pomace)
[30,32,33] Torque: 14 900 Nm
Frequency: 2.1 rad/s
Work index 16
Conveyors Transportation of solids via   Throughput: 5 t/h Throughput: 8 t/h Throughput: 6.8 t/h
  screw conveyor (tyres, pomace) [35] Screw diameter: 6 inch Screw diameter: 9 inch  
  or vacuum pumping (resins) [46] Distance: 50 m Distance: 50 m  
Bucket elevators Elevate solids [35] Distance: 20 m Distance: 20 m Vacuum pump power: 14.4 kW
Sulfuric acid bath Sulfonating of solids [23,36] Acid/solid ratio (l/kg): 2
Temperature: 35 °C
Filtering Pumping during solids filtration [23,27] Flow rate: 71.42 m3/hr
Pump head: 30 m
Acid pumps Pumping spent acid for regeneration [23,47] Flow: 171.4 m3/hr
Pump head: 25.1 m
Roaster Acid vaporization [39] Temperature: 109 °C
Cyclone Removal of solids [48] Diameter: 0.30 m
Reactor Pyrolysis process [23,38,49] Diameter: 4 m
Sand bed height: 4 m
Diameter: 4 m
Sand bed height: 4 m
Diameter: 4 m
Sand bed height: 4 m
Nitrogen compressor Circulation of N2 in pyr. reactors [23,38] Flow rate: 407.8 l/min Flow rate: 544.8 l/min Flow rate: 424.6 l/min
Scrubber Gas cleaning [16,39,41] NaOH flow rate: 0.01 m3/s
Pressure drop: 200 N/m2
NaOH flow rate 0.01 m3/s
Pressure drop: 200 N/m2
– (not necessary;
low S content of feedstock)
Gas compressor Compression to furnace [23,27] Flow rate: 6.95 m3/s Flow rate: 7.85 m3/s Flow rate: 5.05 m3/s
Air compressor Air supply for gas furnace [23,27] Flow rate: 2.98 m3/s Flow rate: 6.53 m3/s Flow rate: 4.69 m3/s
Water pump Feed to steam boilers [23,47] Flow rate: 85.1 m3/hr    
Pump head: 50 m Flow rate: 15.75 m3/hr
Pump head: 50 m
Flow rate: 13.7 m3/hr
Pump head: 30 m
Furnace Heat recovery [25,42] Heat recovery efficiency: 80% Heat recovery efficiency: 80% Heat recovery efficiency: 80%
Absorber column Acid concentration [39,47,50] Flow rate: 146.22 m3/hr
Pump head: 4 m

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