Table A1

Review results (EC: ethylene carbonate; PC: propylene carbonate; DEC: diethyl carbonate; DMC: dimethyl carbonate; FEC: fluoroethylene carbonate; TEGDME: tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether; SBR: styrene-butadiene rubber; CMC: carboxymethyl cellulose; DCE: Discharge Coulombic Efficiency; ICE: Initial Coulombic Efficiency; PS: Particle size; CD: Current density; RC: Reversible capacity; DV: Discharge voltage).

Author Year Ref Type of precursor Pre-treatment Carbonization Post treatment Yield (%) Cathode Electrolyte Binder Separator No. of cycles RC. (mAh/g) DV (V) CD (mA/g) PS (μm) ICE (%) DCE (%)
Kim et al. 2018 [5] Starch from rice 80 °C under vacuum for 12h 503 K for 4 h (1 K/ min), then grinding. Then 1373 K for 1 h (1 K/ min). Cooled under argon flow 13 Sea water 1M NaCF3SO3 in TEGDME SBR/CMC NASI-CON ceramic > 400 291 3.7 30 1–20 43 100
Zhang et al. 2018 [70] Lotus stem Cut into pieces and dried 100 °C for 24 hr 1400 °C Washed by HF solution and water then dried at 80 °C for 12 h     1 mol/L NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) PVdF Glass fiber > 450 351 3 40   70 100
Yu et al. 2018 [71] Old loofah Immersed into 0.1 M ZnCl2 solution for 24 h at room temp. dried at 60 °C 800 °C (under inert N2 flow for 1 h at 5 °C/min) Mixed with carbon black and binder (7:2:1 m/m), coated onto copper foil, vacuum dried at 60 °C for 12 h   Na metal 1.0M NaClO4 and 5.0% FEC in EC/DEC PVdF Glass fiber > 1000 390 3 25 (max. 1000) 12    
Wang et al. 2018 [7] Rice husk 6 M HCl for 6 h and 10% HF for 12 h, rinsing with water, drying at 120 °C 12 h in vacuum oven. 1300 °C for 2 h under argon flow. heating rate 5 °C/min Mixed with carbon black and binder (8:1:1 m/m), cast onto copper foil, dried at 80 °C for 12 h in vacuum oven 24 Na3V2(P-O4)2F3, Na metal 1M NaClO4 in in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) PVF Glass fiber > 100 372 4.3     65 99
Dou et al. 2018 [51] Pectin free Apple pomace   1100 °C for 6 h under argon (10 °C/ min) Ground and ball milled 30 NaNCM 0.5M NaPF6 in PC PVdF   230 285 2 20   65.6  
Zheng et al. 2017 [72] Macadamia Shell Dried at 120 °C in vacuum for 6 h 1400 °C for 2 h     Na[Cu1/9Ni2/9Fe1/3Mn1/3]O2 1M NaPF6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v), with 2% FEC PVF Glass fiber ≈ 1000 314 4   10 91.4 100
Hu et al. 2017 [73] Poly-urethane Immersed in saturated urea solution and freeze-dried 700 °C for 2 h, heating rate 5 °C/min Mixed with NaCl aq. solution (2.5 mg/mL), 180 °C for 6 h in autoclave   O3-Na0.9 [Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 1M NaClO4 in EC/DMC (1:1 v/v) PVF   ≤ 1000 210 3 20     100
Zhu et al. 2017 [74] Leonardite humic acid Purification process containing alkali dissolution and acid precipitation to remove salts and ash 1500 Dried at 85 °C for 10 h in a vacuum oven 60   1M NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) PVdF Glass fiber > 250 345 2.5 250 2–5 73  
Zhang et al. 2017 [75] Switch-grass Cut into small segments and washed with water/ethanol before drying at 60 °C 1000 °C for 2 h, under argon Heated by Joule heating to 2050 °C 25 Na metal 1M NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) PVdF   800 200 2 50   42 ≈ 100
Xiang et al. 2017 [76] Orange peel Washed with deionized water and dried at 80 °C overnight in a vacuum oven 800 °C for 2 h in tubular furnace under argon flow 200 cm3/min, heating rate 5 °C/min Immersed in 100 mL 7% KOH solution at room temp. for 24 h, then dried at 80 °C. Ground and washed with 2M HCl and water, dried at 80 °C for 12 h in vacuum     1M NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) PVdF Glass fiber 100 156 3 500   42 100
Dahbi et al. 2017 [77] Argan shells Washed with acetone and pulverized, treated with 2M HCl solution for 20 h at 60 °C. Filtrated, washed with water. Dried at 110 °C for 1 h under argon 1200 °C, 1 h 3 hours in vacuum at 200 °C. Cast onto aluminum foil and then dried at 150 °C for 12 h in vacuum 36 Na2/3Ni1/3 Mn2/3O2 1M NaPF6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) Na polyacrylate Glass fiber 200 333 3 25   79 99
Cao et al. 2017 [78] Rape seed shuck Washed with water, dried at 110 °C for 12 h in vacuum. Milled, treated with HNO3 (10 wt.%) solution for 30 min, dried at 180 °C for 24 h. Washed with water and ethanol 700 °C for 2 h, argon atmosphere, 10 °C/min Pressed onto Cu foil current collectors and dried at 120 °C overnight   Na metal 1M NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 w/w), 5 wt.% FEC additive PVdF   < 200 177.7 3 100   60 100
Jayaraman et al. 2017 [79] Coconut shell Dried at 105 °C for 24 h, crushed and ground. Activation by ZnCl2 (chemical act. agent) and CO2 (physical act. agent) 800 °C for 2 h, 10 °C/min under N2 (50 mL/min). N2 was then replaced by CO2 at a flow rate of 40 mL/min 30 min in 0.1M HCl, washed with water until pH of 6. Then dried at 105 °C for 24 h   Na metal 1M NaClO4 in EC/DMC PVF Whatman paper > 200 190 4 100     97
Wang et al. 2015 [10] Resorcinol-formalde-hyde (RF) resin Phenol, formaldehyde and aqueous NaOH added. 90 °C for 1 h. Then 500 °C for 12 h in furnace, cooled to room temperature. dried in vacuum at 80 °C for 12 h 1250 °C, 3 h under N2 flow Spread on a copper foil and then dried at 120 °C under vacuum for 12 h, followed by rolling   Li sheets 1M NaClO4 in EC/DMC (1:1 v/v) PVF   100 311 2.7 20 1 to 8 µm 60.2 100
Zhu et al. 2017 [80] Sorghum stalk waste Smashed by a blender 1300 °C, 2 h Washed by 3M HCl at room temp., rinsed by deionized water, filtrated. Dried at 100 °C 12 h in vacuum oven 22.6 Na metal 1M NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v);
2 vol% FEC
    > 50 255 2 20 10 µm 62.2  
Li et al. 2016 [36] Recycled tire rubber Soaked in a 100 mL concentrated H2SO4 (at 120 °C for 12 h) Sulfonated tire rubber then washed and filtered off 400 °C, 1 °C/min. Then further increased to 1600 °C, ramp rate of 2 °C/min Cast onto copper foil, drying in vacuum oven at 120 °C overnight. 70 Na metal Solution of 1M NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) PVF   100 203 3 20   66 100
Jiang et al. 2016 [81] Ramie fiber carbon Saturated NaOH for 1 h at 100 °C, neutralized, filtrated. Soaked in H2O2 (30%) for 24 h. Washed with water and alcohol until pH of 7. Dried at 100 °C for 10 h under vacuum Stabilized in an air atmosphere at 280 °C for 1 h under air, then 700 °C for 3 h under argon atmosphere in tube furnace Immersed in HCl solution (37 wt.%), dried at 80 °C in vacuum overnight.   Lithium foil 1M LiPF6 in EC/DEC (1:1, v/v) PVdF   180 192 3 100      
Jiang et al. 2016 [81] Corncob carbon Washed and cooked in water for 0.5 h. Dried in vacuum at 80 °C for 24 h. inner part of cob then ground in mortar 280 °C for 1 h under air. Then 700 °C for 3 h under argon atmosphere in tube furnace, rate of 5 °C/min Immersed in HCl solution (37 wt.%), dried at 80 °C in vacuum overnight   Lithium foil 1M LiPF6 in EC/DEC (1:1, v/v) PVdF   180 161 3 100 10    
Wang et al. 2016 [82] Peanut skins In boiling water for 5 minutes, dried and cooled to room Temp. Mixed with FeCl3 and KOH, evaporated at 80 °C, then dried at 90 °C. 800 °C for 1 h, argon atmosphere, heating rate of 5 °C/min Dried in an oven at 80 °C for 12 h   Na metal 1M LiPF6 in EC/DEC (1:1, v/v) PVdF Polyethene 3000 185 3 500   24.2 99
Selvamani et al. 2016 [83] Garlic peel Washed with water and dried atmospherically. Pre-carbonized at 300 °C under air and ground. Mixed with aq. KOH (1:1 m/m) 850 °C for 2 h, heating rate 3 °C/min, argon atmosphere Washed with 1.0M HCl, then with water until neutral pH. Washed with ethanol and dried at 100 °C under vacuum   CR-2032 sodium ion coin type cell 1M NaTFSI in EC/DEC PVdF Polypropylene 100 200 2.5 100   41 95
Li et al. 2016 [84] Natural cotton   1300 °C for 2 h under argon flow Dried at 100 °C in vacuum for 10 h   Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 0.8M NaPF6 in EC/DMC (1:1 v/v) Sodium alginate   100 315 3.2 30 5–10 µm 83  
Shen et al. 2016 [85] Wood Hard wood block cut into different thickness. Wood slabs treated in furnace at 260 °C for 8 h in air 1000 °C for 2 h under argon     Na3V2(PO4)3 1.0m NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) No binder Glass fiber > 350   2.8 80   70 99.4
Li et al. 2016 [86] Dry oak leaves   1000 °C for 1 h under argon, rate of 10 °C/min Immersed in 3M HCl for 6 h   Na metal 1.0M NaClO4 in EC/DEC No binder   > 200 300 2.5 20   74.8 100
Wu et al. 2015 [13] Apple peels 80 °C for 72 h in oven, then ground. Treated with H3PO4 (aq., 80 wt.%) for 3 days. Filtered and rinsed with water. Dried 12 h at 80 °C 1100 °C, 6 h under argon, heating rate 10 °C/min Ground and milled for 3 h 2 NaNCM 0.5M NaPF6 in PC PVdF   100 250 3 20   61 99.1 %
Hase-gawa et al. 2015 [20] Synthetic resin Mixed resorcinol, HCl aq., formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol (EtOH) at 40 °C 1600 °C for 2 h under argon gas (1 L/min), heating rate of 4 °C/min High‐temp treatment (> 2000 °C) in graphite furnace under argon. Furnace was rapidly ramped to 1300 °C, then 10 °C/min   Na Metal 0.8M NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) Binder free   > 100 300 2 20   92 100
Irisarri et al. 2015 [12] Sugar   1100 °C for 6 h, under argon flow   27 Na metal 1M NaPF6 in EC/PC/ DMC (0.45:0.45: 0.1 m/m) PVdF   120 330 2 20   65 100
Lotfa-bad et al. 2014 [8] Banana Peels Washed with water, cut into small pieces, and dried at 110 °C overnight in a vacuum oven 1100 °C for 5 h, heating rate 5 °C/min, under argon atmosphere (100 scm3/min) Washed in 20% KOH at 70 °C for 2 h and 2M HCl at 60 °C for 15 h. Rinsed (water) and filtrated. Dried at 110 °C for 12 h in vacuum. Activated at 300 °C for 3 h (5 °C/min) under air   Na metal 1M NaClO4 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) PVdF Polyethylene 300 300 2.8 50 mA/g for 10 cycles. 100 mA/g for the rest   68 100
Hong et al. 2014 [9] Pomelo peels Cut and dried by vacuum freeze-drying . Impregnated in H3PO4 (aq) for 24 h and vacuum freeze-dried for 48 h 700 °C for 2 h under N2 flow Drying at 80 °C in an oven for 12 hours   Na metal 1M NaClO4 in EC/PC (1:1 v/v) PVdF Glass fiber 220 181 3 200   27 95
Ponrouch et al. 2013 [87] Sugar   1100 °C, 6 h Ball milled and heat treated at 1100 °C (6 h, argon flow)   Na metal 1M NaClO4 in EC/PC (1:1 m/m), 2%vol FEC PVdF   > 120 300   C/10   61 100

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