Read in "Technical and industrial news"
SF2M: 70 years in the service of the Metallurgy and Materials
By Jean-Marc Chaix
The French Society of Metallurgy and Materials (SF2M), was created in 1945. Where are we 70 years later, in terms of scientific and technical knowledge on materials and processes, but also of expectations of the society? The day of the 70th anniversary of the SF2M, March 20th, 2015 was dedicated to these questionings, with conferences on materials of today, their design and manufacturing. A photography exhibition and a best micrograph competition were associated to this day.
MATERIALS 2014: a big success for the materials sciences community
By Olivier Isnard and Jérôme Crépin
With 1800 participants, and an exemplary attendance of the 5 plenary conferences and 19 colloquiums, MATERIALS 2014 (November 24-28th, 2014, Montpellier, France) assures definitively the sustainability of the MATERIALS conferences, which turn out essential for the community of materials. The conference was an excellent place of meeting and scientific and technical exchanges between the various actors of this vast multidisciplinary field.
Tribute to our Editor René Guyonnet
By Vincent Verney and Ariana Fuga
We have learned with great sadness the death of René Guyonnet, member of the editorial board of "Materials & Techniques", on February 6th 2015. Our editorial board pays tribute to this passionate scientific in the field of the thermal treatment of wood, and to this editor always mindful of dissemination of the scientific information.
The national network « metallurgy »
By François Mudry
Président de l’IRT-M2P, 4 rue Augustin Fresnel, 57070 Metz
The Academy of the sciences and the Academy of the technologies published in 2010 a report on the metallurgy in France. A committee was set up by the Ministry of Education and Research with the aim to study the implementation of the various recommendations. The committee made a series of concrete propositions at the beginning of 2014, concerning a structuralization of the metallurgy in France with various aspects: needs and organization of training, of research, of the relations with industry and the visibility of the discipline. This short article quickly presents these issues.
Tribute to Jacques Friedel - One of the last "founding fathers" of the physical metallurgy, and pioneer of the physics of solids, passed away
By Yves Bréchet
Haut-Commissaire à l’énergie atomique, Le Ponant D, 25, rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris, France
Olivier Hardouin Duparc
CNRS, LSI, École polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France
We briefly recall the important career, together with the moving personality, of the great fundamental metallurgist and solid state physicist Jacques Friedel who passed away on the 27th of August 2014 in Paris.
See also: Tribute to Jacques Friedel
The summer schools on physical metallurgy (1966 – 2012)
By Jean Philibert
Events inspired by the experience of summer schools on physical metallurgy should provide young researchers with a real and essential therapy. Generations change, science and its methods change, but the need for solid fundamental courses, supplemented by exercises and practical work, remains a necessity: they were and should remain the heart of these schools, in a relaxing environment which is essential for promoting contacts and exchanges.
L’acier fondu au creuset en France au 19e siècle : héritage de l’Orient et naissance des aciers spéciaux
by J. Le Coze
Which are the similarities and the differences between the tools and techniques used for crucible steel melting, in Near and Middle East, India and China, as compared with those which appeared in Europe at the end of the 18th century?
Which were the crucibles, the melted products, the different types of furnaces, the process control, the strategic importance of these steels in the 19th century, in spite of a low level production? In order to know more about a historical subject, not largely treated subject concerning the steel-making history and technics, and to place correctly the ancestral techniques that gave birth to the steel industry of special steels, see the articles of J. Le Coze: Crucible steel in France in the 19th century: heritage from Orient and rise of special steels
The promises of the graphene - Remarkable properties and applications
by Johann Coraux et Mark Oliver Goerbig
The graphene is one of the most promising materials for a technology of the future. It can be distinguished among the other materials by its remarkable electronic properties accompanied at the same time with a big mechanical flexibility, with a big robustness, and with a big chemical stability. Today, the graphene leaves the fundamental research laboratories and makes its road towards the industry because of its big potential for various applications. This is made possible, in particular, by a big progress in the industrial production of graphène on a large scale.
Thoughts about materials sciences
by Alain Thorel
The elements that constitute our materials of every day result from the stars. Materials are everywhere in our life, at such a point such as the user has only little consciousness of the degree of sophistication of the studies and the knowledge necessary to produce the object that he has in hands. The science of materials is a living, rapidly growing science, which overflows on numerous disciplines, interfaces with them. The way the research - including that in science of materials - is organized and financed, and the way it is perceived, make difficult the work of the researcher which has an eminent role to play, because it helps to give form to the future, the long term, in a world with an uncertain environment; his freedom guarantees our future!
Modeling the degradation of Portland cement pastes by biogenic organic acids
by Laurent De Windt and Philippe Devillers
A bioleaching test of OPC pastes by the fungus Aspergillus niger is modeled with the reactive transport code HYTEC. Modeling indicates that the biogenic organic acids (mostly carboxylic acids) strongly accelerate hydrate dissolution by acidic hydrolysis while their complexations of aluminum have an effect on the secondary gel stability only. Degradation depth could be affected by precipitation of calcium salts. Precipitation of calcium oxalate is predicted by modeling but was hindered in the present experiment.